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|タイトル: ||Decentralization in Nation State Building of Indonesia|
|著者: ||Matsui, Kazuhisa|
Nation state building
|Issue Date: ||Aug-2003|
|出版者: ||Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO|
|引用: ||IDE Research Paper No. 2|
|抄録: ||Introduction：Today, many countries, regardless of developed or developing, are trying to promote
decentralization. According to Manor, as his quoting of Nickson’s argument,
decentralization stems from the necessity to strengthen local governments as proxy of
civil society to fill the yawning gap between the state and civil society (Manor :
30). With the end to the Cold War following the collapse of the Soviet Union rendering
the cause of the “leadership of the central government to counter communism”
meaningless, Manor points out, it has become increasingly difficult to respond flexibly
to changes in society under the centralized system.
Then, what benefits can be expected from the effectuation of decentralization?
Litvack-Ahmad-Bird cited the four points: attainment of allocative efficiency in the
face of different local preferences for local public goods; improvement to government
competitiveness; realization of good governance; and enhancement of the legitimacy
and sustainability of heterogeneous national states (Litvack, Ahmad & Bird : 5).
They all contribute to reducing the economic and social costs of a central government
unable to respond to changes in society and enhancing the efficiency of state
administration through the delegation of authority to local governments.
Why did Indonesia have a go at decentralization? As Maryanov recognizes,
reasons for the implementation of decentralization in Indonesia have never been
explicitly presented (Maryanov : 17). But there was strong momentum toward
building a democratic state in Indonesia at the time of independence, and as indicated
by provisions of Article 18 of the 1945 Constitution, there was the tendency in
Indonesia from the beginning to debate decentralization in association with
democratization. That said debate about democratization was fairly abstract and the
main points are to ease the tensions, quiet the complaints, satisfy the political forces
and thus stabilize the process of government (Maryanov : 26-27).
What triggered decentralization in Indonesia in earnest, of course, was the
collapse of the Soeharto regime in May 1998. The Soeharto regime, regarded as the
epitome of the centralization of power, became incapable of effectively dealing with
problems in administration of the state and development administration. Besides, the
post-Soeharto era of “reform (reformasi)” demanded the complete wipeout of the
Soeharto image. In contraposition to the centralization of power was decentralization.
The Soeharto regime that ruled Indonesia for 32 years was established in 1966 under
the banner of “anti-communism.” The end of the Cold War structure in the late 1980s
undermined the legitimate reason the centralization of power to counter communism
claimed by the Soeharto regime. The factor for decentralization cited by Manor is
Decentralization can be interpreted to mean not only the reversal of the
centralized system of government due to its inability to respond to changes in society,
as Manor points out, but also the participation of local governments in the process of
the nation state building through the more positive transfer of power (democratic
decentralization) and in the coordinated pursuit with the central government for a new
shape of the state. However, it is also true that a variety of problems are gushing out in the process of implementing decentralization in Indonesia.
This paper discusses the relationship between decentralization and the
formation of the nation state with the awareness of the problems and issues described
above. Section 1 retraces the history of decentralization by examining laws and
regulations for local administration and how they were actually implemented or not.
Section 2 focuses on the relationships among the central government, local
governments, foreign companies and other actors in the play over the distribution of
profits from exploitation of natural resources, and examines the process of the ulterior
motives of these actors and the amplification of mistrust spawning intense conflicts
that, in extreme cases, grew into separation and independence movements. Section 3
considers the merits and demerits at this stage of decentralization implemented since
2001 and shed light on the significance of decentralization in terms of the nation state
building. Finally, Section 4 attempts to review decentralization as the “opportunity to
learn by doing” for the central and local governments in the process of the nation state building.
In the context of decentralization in Indonesia, deconcentration
(dekonsentrasi), decentralization (desentralisasi) and support assignments (tugas
pembantuan; medebewind, a Dutch word, was used previously) are defined as follows.
Dekonsentrasi means that when the central government puts a local office of its own,
or an outpost agency, in charge of implementing its service without delegating the
administrative authority over this particular service. The outpost agency carries out the services as instructed by the central government. A head of a local government, when
acting for the central government, gets involved in the process of dekonsentrasi.
Desentralisasi, meanwhile, occurs when the central government cedes the
administrative authority over a particular service to local governments. Under
desentralisasi, local governments can undertake the particular service at their own
discretion, and the central government, after the delegation of authority, cannot
interfere with how local governments handle that service. Tugas pembantuan occur
when the central government makes local governments or villages, or local
governments make villages, undertake a particular service. In this case, the central
government, or local governments, provides funding, equipment and materials
necessary, and officials of local governments and villages undertake the service under
the supervision and guidance of the central or local governments. Tugas pembantuan
are maintained until local governments and villages become capable of undertaking
that particular service on their own.|
|Appears in Collections:||04.法律、行政(Law and Public Administration)/東南アジア(Southeast Asian Studies)|
05.IDE Research Papers
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