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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2344/1145

タイトル: Gacaca and DDR : the disputable record of state-building in Rwanda
その他のタイトル: ガチャチャとDDR : ルワンダの国家建設と治安部門改革
著者: Takeuchi, Shinichi
武内, 進一
キーワード: Rwanda
Internal conflicts
State
Legitimacy of government
State-building
SSR
Conflict
Gacaca
Legitimacy
Issue Date: Jul-2011
出版者: Japan International Cooperation Agency Research Institute
引用: JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 32. 2011. 7.
抄録: State-building is currently considered to be an indispensable process in overcoming state fragility: a condition characterized by frequent armed conflicts as well as chronic poverty. In this process, both the capacity and the legitimacy of the state are supposed to be enhanced; such balanced development of capacity and legitimacy has also been demanded in security sector reform (SSR), which is regarded as being a crucial part of post-conflict state-building. To enhance legitimacy, the importance of democratic governance is stressed in both state-building and SSR in post-conflict countries. In reality, however, the balanced enhancement of capacity and legitimacy has rarely been realized. In particular, legitimacy enhancement tends to stagnate in countries in which one of multiple warring parties takes a strong grip on state power. This paper tries to understand why such unbalanced development of state-building and SSR has been observed in post-conflict countries, through a case study of Rwanda. Analyses of two policy initiatives in the security sector - Gacaca transitional justice and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) - indicate that although these programs achieved goals set by the government, their contribution to the normative objectives promoted by the international community was quite debatable. It can be understood that this is because the country has subordinated SSR to its state-building process. After the military victory of the former rebels, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), the ruling elite prioritized the establishment of political stability over the introduction of international norms such as democratic governance and the rule of law. SSR was implemented only to the extent that it contributed to, and did not threaten, Rwanda's RPF-led state-building.
長期的な紛争や貧困に象徴される国家の脆弱性を克服するために、国家建設はきわめて重 要な役割を担う。長期的な平和のためには、国家建設の過程で、国家の能力とともに国民 から見た国家の正当性を高めねばならない。能力開発だけでなく正当性の構築が求められ るのは、国家建設の中核をなす治安部門改革(SSR)についても同様である。こうした認識 は、今日の国際社会の共通理解であり、規範をなしている。しかし、紛争経験国において、 こうした規範に沿って国家建設やSSR が展開することは稀である。本稿では、1990 年代に 深刻な内戦を経験したルワンダを事例として、規範と実態の乖離について検討する。ジェ ノサイドの容疑者を裁く移行期正義のガチャチャと、動員解除・再統合プログラムをSSR の代表例として分析すると、政府の掲げた目標はほぼ達成されたものの、それが国家の正 当性の強化に繋がったとは見なしがたい。ルワンダのSSR は、紛争後に政権を握った勢力 が主導する国家建設に資する限りでのみ実施されたといえる。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2344/1145
Appears in Collections:02.政治、国際関係(Politics,International Relationship)/アフリカ(African Studies)
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